Everything about Printed Circuit Board

What is a PCB?

Simply put, a printed circuit board can also be called as “printed wiring boards”. It has many uses in almost every industry. Many technologies make use of this to operate many gadgets and technologies especially computers for general use. It has wires that connect various points together.

This card is made out of plastic or fiberglass so it couldn’t conduct electricity. By the use of copper, it could direct the electricity to where it supposed to be or where it wants it to go. It is used to connect electronic components together by the use of metal to conduct electricity. This metal is the key for electricity to travel from one electronic circuit to another. That is why it is very useful in creating computers, mobile phones, and many other electronics.

A breadboard can also be used in building a circuit. However, this is time-consuming and mistakes can occur because of small components that are easy to connect incorrectly. This could cause the circuit to fail. It is also prone to damage because these small connections are delicate. For a computer, a large number of printed circuit board are made for a certain job. In some cases, a person can design his or her printed circuit board to make it more convenient for them. Most of those kinds of printed circuit board are made plain to fulfill one electric task.

History of PCB

Circuit BoardThe development of this PCB started in the early 20th century. The metal strips were initially used to connect on top of the wooden bases. Those metal strips were then replaced by wired connected to the screw materials. Then the wooden bases were then changed by metal chassis. During 1935, Charles Ducas submitted a patent application for a method of electroplating circuit patterns by printing through a stencil with special ink that could conduct electricity. This gave birth to the name “printed wiring”.

The US firm Hazeltine during 1961 patented the hole technology and its purpose in multi-layer PCBs. This causes the increase in component density and closely spaced paths. This started the new era in PCB design. During the 1970s, integrated circuits chips were introduced. This circuit is the keystone of the modern electronics.

It is also considered as the brains of the circuits. The integrated circuit is a group of electronic components all put into a tiny chip connected together to fulfill a specific task. This is one of the most commonly used circuits to this day. This is also the circuit that was quickly incorporated into the design of the PCB.

The composition of a PCB

The first thing to discuss the components of a PCB is the FR4. This base material gives the PCB its rigidity and thickness. The cheap FR4 lack durability since it will be made with materials such as phenolics or epoxies. If you are looking for a high quality and durable FR4 at a reasonable price, the materials of Imagineering.inc are the best place to look for one. Visit their website at www.pcbnet.com.

Printed Circuit BoardThe next one is the thin copper foil. It is common to be double sided on PCBs, applied on both sides of the board. Some PCBs may have copper only on one side for lower costs gadgets. The thickness of the copper can vary and can be indicated by weight.
Another thing is the layer on top of the copper foil which is the solder mask. This helps the worker solder the right places and prevent mistakes like solder jumpers. This layer is applied to most of the PCB, leaving metal traces or silver rings and SMD pad so they can be soldered. A solder mask is usually green but it could also come with different colors.

Lastly, the white silkscreen is applied on top of the solder mask. It adds letters, numbers, and symbols to label different parts of the PCB. This allows stress-free assembly and for better understanding for people working on a PCB. Sometimes, these labels are used to specify what the purpose of each pin is. This is usually white but it could also come with different ink color. Colors like black, gray, and red are also generally available.

If you are looking for more high quality and durable PCB materials, please visit Imagineering.inc. Imagineering. Inc has the capability to fabricate printed circuit boards at their offshore facilities. It is important to have the trust of customers when it comes to quality, service, and professionalism. In that case, Imagineering.inc has it all.

They offer reasonable prices and savings for the conveniences of the customers. In that way, many would be obliged to buy PCB materials. Just visit their website to learn how to buy materials from them, which would mean that it is possible to order online from them.

Little Known Facts About Challenge and Custom Coins

Challenge and custom coins are coins that were previously used exclusively by the military. They use them to identify the members of their unit, to express goodwill among different military groups and to promote camaraderie and friendship within the military in general. Outside the military these coins are also being used for various purposes including commemoration of significant milestones, as part of an award to outstanding employees and for promotional purposes. These are the most well-known uses of custom and challenge coins.

To help you increase your appreciation for challenge and custom coins we at www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com have come up with some interesting trivia about these coins that you might not know about. Here are some of them.

Trivia #1
coinsAs most stories go challenge coins got its name from when it was once used to make people pay for your drinks. During the World War II, the Americans stationed in Germany took on a local tradition of checking for pfennig. Pfennig is the lowest coin denomination in Germany and it can hardly ever buy you anything significant. But pfennigs were important to the Americans because if you didn’t have one and a “pfennig check” was conducted then you would have to pay for the drinks of the person who challenged you. A variation of the “pfennig check” can also mean anyone in the group who doesn’t have their pfennig will have to pay for the entire group’s tab or the drinks of those who brought their pfennig. After the World War II, the soldiers would use the unit’s challenge and custom coins instead of pfennig.

Trivia #2
During the time of Nazis military people were very wary of one another. You never know which ones are allies and which ones are spies. Intelligence reports are becoming increasingly sophisticated that spies are able to infiltrate the military ranks and are able to gain access to secret tactical meetings. In order to ensure that only authorized members of the military are able to gain access to secret meetings and the like, each member is given a custom coin. This custom coin must be presented at the venue otherwise he will not be allowed in and detained for further questioning.

These coins were used as “Bona Fides” to be presented at personnel meetings.

Trivia #3
Ancient Romans were said to have used the earliest challenge coins ever. They would give special minted coins to their most successful soldiers as part of their compensation. These coins are just like regular coins that are used to buy commodities at that time but what made them special is that these coins bear a mark of the legion that the soldier belonged to. So instead of spending the coin the soldier would keep it as a memento.

Trivia #4
When Bill Clinton held office at the White House, he had a challenge coin create for the President of the United States. Every President of the United States thereafter has his own challenge coin. Each challenge or custom coins created for the president can be different. It can commemorate his inauguration or his campaigns etc. The most sought after among all of the presidential challenge coins are those that he hands out himself during a secret handshake. The president rarely ever gives out his presidential challenge coin and if you got one, you most likely did something significant for America.

Trivia #5
The vice president has his own challenge coin too! Dick Cheney was the first to have his own challenge coin and ever since then other vice presidents had one too.

Trivia #6
Outside the US, the British use challenge and custom coins too. During the Second Boer War, the British had to hire mercenaries to fight as soldiers. The status of these soldiers of fortune made them ineligible to earn medals so in order to show appreciation for all their hard work, the commanding officers would secretly take the medals awarded unjustly to the officers and give them to the mercenaries in a secret handshake.

Salutations With Badge Holders

People nowadays use holders, like a lanyard or badge holder, to hold some of their items securely in place. Badge holders are used to hold small or important things, such as phones, identification cards and keys, just to name a few. These are useful because you can get important things like a phone easily rather than rummaging through your bag that may waste precious time. Here the-lanyard-factory.com, you can get more idea about lanyard or badge holder.

Very Important Persons or VIPs, students and other company or team members need an identification card to be recognized, but most students or members misplace or lose their IDs, which is the main reason why they need to have badge holders. With our holders, these specific people can make their IDs easily reachable and visible.

Grey LanyardsThe first reference of the badge holders was in the 15th century in the French Military, which began as a connecting instrument for combat tools and devices to be within their reach such as swords, helmets, whistle or shield. It did not look exactly like what badge holders seem to be at present but nevertheless, the rope or string attached is a convincing idea. Prior to these, identification cards used to be held to collars of shirt pockets with clips. Somehow, clips would not, in any case, be flattering especially with delicate fabric, thus, the innovation of simple neck strings or necklaces for IDs to hang to.

While the idea of an ID necklace may seem pretty fancy, it may not command uniformity in some cases, like schools and companies or organizations in general. The evolution of ID holders just got more exciting with a new definition as “lanyards” or “badge holders”. These items are very much similar to the ho-hum ID necklaces, albeit, much more uniform for everyone with embossed company or organization logo and a multi-functional holder, which is not just exclusive to identification cards.

Exclusivity, introduction and marketing one’s organization are the reasons why badge holders are necessary nowadays and in effect, they make good investments. Lanyards identify the organization or company one is affiliated with and offers mute salutations of introducing themselves to the public. The appearance and utilization of a lanyard offers more than impression at some times because it may make a bold statement of how the company does their business and how serious and dedicated they are in taking care of the people who work with them. This is possible just by infusing art and media.

LanyardsA uniform and brazen-designed badge holder has a subconscious effect on the wearer as it subliminally reminds the individual of the dedication and hard work mutually offered to the institution he is working for and the pride he shares with the successes of the company. It can be considered as an extension of identification of the institution in general, which is why a balance of the design and logo of the lanyard is no laughing matter. Employees, students or members of the organization must feel proud to wear the lanyard even during those times when they forget that it’s no longer necessary to wear such anymore like after school or work.

If you decide to order the holders from us, then rest assured that we have several designs that you can choose from. We will also let you choose from our wide array of attachments, including the following:

  • Thumb Trigger
  • Bulldog Clip
  • Carabiner
  • Cell Phone Loop
  • Safety Break
  • Oval Hook

Choose an attachment, which is suitable to your needs whether it is just for holding ID cards or as a media device lace such as digital cameras, flash drives and the like.

You can also choose from our wide range of fabrics like the following:

  • Polyester fabric
  • Nylon fabric
  • Woven fabric
  • Dye sub fabric
  • Tubular fabric

Each fabric is designed for ease of movement and less friction with any clothing fabric. The weight and stability of thread count also add up to the value for money factor. Each one is also guaranteed to last long time. There are also choices for non-fabric material, such as cords or badge reels that are retractable and can save a lot of space. You don’t also need to worry about entanglement with other things or devices in your bag. Each one is suitable according to your company, school or organization’s needs.

Badge HoldersAs mentioned earlier, customized layouts or designs are indeed a must for every company or organization since this is a subtle and mute introduction to the public. Luckily, our professional badge holder makers specialize in that kind of work. We also work with our clients closely, so that each design detail is successfully accomplished, giving them their money’s worth.

Badge holders are no little matter nowadays. It is always best to have one that will carry the company, school or organization and would make them stand out.

Caring for Your Golf Shoes

Shoes that are manufactured for a specific sport are undoubtedly more expensive than their more general counterparts. Golf shoes in particular are expensive investments for any serious golfer. Therefore, extra care will have to be showered upon these shoes to ensure that they remain wearable for an extended amount of time.

Leather golf shoesLeather golf shoes in particular require extra attention since they are made of natural materials. Although the material will allow your feet to remain cooler, a leather shoe that becomes waterlogged unfortunately has a tendency to shrink or otherwise become deformed.

Even though most leather shoes have a waterproof outer coating, they still generally need more maintenance compared to a shoe made of synthetic material. Therefore, it is important to check whether your golf shoe comes with a waterproof warranty.

As soon as that warranty expires, make sure that you apply a coat of mink oil, wax, or any other special leather creme on the shoes at least once a year. The added coating will not only help protect your shoes but keep them looking cleaner and more polished.

golf shoeLikewise, you should always make sure that you store your shoes in a well-ventilated area. Never leave them in the trunk of your car since very hot or very cold temperatures could cause leather shoes to dry out and crack. Room temperature is the ideal environment for your valuable investments. In addition, you should also properly dry the shoes before you store them in any closed location.

One other way that you can care for your golf shoes and prolong their life is to simply insert shoes trees inside them after every use. Again, leather shoes stand to gain the most from the use of shoes trees since they are the ones most prone to warping.

Aside from helping your shoes maintain their shape, shoe trees will also draw out the accumulated moisture from your feet.

This will prevent mold from growing on your leather shoes as well as prevent the infusion of any nasty odors inside your synthetic shoes.

spike golf shoeIf your golf shoes have spikes on the soles, then it is also recommended that you replace the spikes every so often. Due to a person’s specific way of standing or walking, shoe soles can become worn out at various places and at various degrees. Likewise, constantly walking on cemented paths will hasten the wear on your shoes’ spiked sole.

Spiked shoes are specifically prone to having uneven soles since some spikes could actually fall off or worn out after prolonged use. The biggest danger of worn out spikes is obviously leaving the actual sole of your golf shoes more vulnerable to damage.

Although you might feel apprehensive about replacing the spikes on your own, modern innovations have actually made the daunting process much more convenient. Spikes simply need to be unscrewed in order to dislodge them from the sole.

The convenience affords you the chance to change spikes at least every 10 rounds on particularly busy seasons. You will likewise need to replace your spikes more often if you frequently lay on rough terrain. Well-maintained spikes will help you keep a better foothold on the various terrains as well as improve your form.

In the end, the best way to keep your shoes in tiptop shape is to clean them after every round. This however does not mean that you will need to apply the full arsenal of cleaning tools on your shoes every time. Sometimes, a simple wipe with a damp cloth on the shoe surface and deep creases as well as the removal of clumps of dirt can already go a long way.

Characteristics Of A Good Motivational Speaker

If you have the ability to give a kick-ass advice to others, it may be a good idea to be a motivational speaker. But, becoming an inspirational speaker is not an easy task.

To become a successful motivational speaker, you must have the following characteristics:

1. Expertise and knowledge

Effective SpeakerTo become a successful inspirational speaker, you must have expertise or knowledge on the topic that you are tackling on stage. For example, if you’re asked to talk about branding to hundreds of marketing professionals, you must be knowledgeable in the field of brand development and marketing. You must know the “ins” and “outs” of brand campaign. If you’re talking about company conflict management, you must have years of experience in psychology or human resources.

2. Passion

Inspirational speakers are passionate. You can feel the fire within them when they are talking in front of an audience. To be a successful inspirational or keynote speaker, you must be passionate about inspiring people. You must truly care about helping other people make good life decisions. Motivational videos are also helpful for inspiring people.

3. Confidence and Eloquence

Motivational speakers are confident and eloquent. If you want to be a successful speaker you must be strong enough to face a huge crowd. You must have the ability to choose the right words to say.

Also, you can’t speak about confidence if you don’t have it. So, it’s necessary to build your confidence first before you start your career as an inspirational speaker. To do this, you need to:

  • Know your strengths, as well as weaknesses. Write down the things you’re good at and the things that you need to improve on. Then, celebrate your strengths and find a way to improve on your weaknesses.
  • Learn to accept compliments gracefully.
  • Have a positive and cheerful outlook in life.
  • Be assertive.
  • Surround yourself with positive people who lift and support you.
  • Change your image. To be a successful motivational speaker, you must look good. Invest time and money to look better. Dress nicely and give yourself a good hair cut. Making an effort to look good will make you feel good and it will make you feel more confident, too.
  • Be prepared. The best way to increase your confidence is to prepare.

4. Fearlessness

We are all afraid of public speaking at one point. But, to increase your confidence, you must face your fears. You must get rid of your inner critic. You must face your deepest and darkest fear.

5. Flexibility

Remember that different people have different needs. So, to become a successful inspirational speaker, you must be willing to adjust with different people’s needs. You must be dynamic.

6. Integrity

Successful inspirational speakers are people of honor and integrity. If you decide to become an inspirational speaker, you have to teach people ethical ways to achieve success in life. So, to strengthen your credibility, you have to walk the talk. You must be honest and commit yourself to doing what is right. You must have the courage to say no to requests and opportunities that challenge your core principles and beliefs.

7. Influence

To be a successful motivational speaker, you must an inspirational personality that enables you to influence people in a unique way. You must not let others feel hatred or jealousy towards you. You must also have the ability to make mundane and boring topics interesting.

8. Succinctness

When speaking in front of an audience, you must avoid beating the bush. You must be honest and straight to the point. The less you say, the more you’ll positively affect your audience.

9. Sense of Humor

To keep the interest of your listeners, you must be lively and you must have an incredible sense of humor. Make sure to incorporate two to three jokes into your speech.

10. Empathy

To be a successful inspirational speaker, you must have the ability to connect with your listeners. You must have a deep understanding of their feelings and needs. Why did they attend your seminar? What do they want to get from it? It’s important to be honest in delivering your speech, but it is also essential to be sensitive to your listeners’ feelings.

11. Open-mindedness

Your listeners and clients may give you a negative feedback every now and then so it is important to keep an open mind. You must be flexible and you must be open to change your material every now and then.

Becoming a successful motivational speaker is not easy. It requires a lot of work, training, and discipline. You’ll need to read a lot of books and attend different seminars. You may even need to train under the wing of an experienced mentor. Being an inspirational speaker is not easy, but it is rewarding.

Research Chemicals for Sale Online

Health and wellness products are some of the widely consumed products in the market nowadays. To be able to create such consumables, experts conduct different types of research to come up with a perfect product to target a certain illness or health condition. Research chemicals play a very important role when producing different health products. The extensive use of the internet and other technology allows researchers to find research chemicals for sale online.

Browsing through the World Wide Web, we could find a lot of manufacturers, and even suppliers that post research chemicals for sale online. If you are a researcher or a professional looking for products that would assist you with the treatment drug that you are working on, you need not worry anymore about finding the products you need. Those things that you are looking for may be available online.

imagesDifferent manufacturers and suppliers provide a list of their available products on their websites. Some manufacturers have research chemicals that are not commonly available. It may be difficult to find a supplier of research chemicals, but once you have found the right one, all the searching will be worth it. Here is a tip when looking for a supplier: one must make a few calls to different manufacturers and set up a meeting so they could provide a preview of their products before making a purchase. Some experts choose manufacturers that could give discounts on every purchase of their products.

Other researchers, however, choose manufacturers that are located near their laboratories so they can go and visit them anytime whenever they need a specific research chemical. Majority of the chemicals that are needed for research may be accessed anywhere, anytime. This is because of the research chemicals for sale online. Manufacturers that have an online shop have the advantage of advancing their market because their products can easily be bought online and be shipped to the clients in no time.

Some manufacturers that have research chemicals provide different promotions such as free shipping for a specific quantity of orders. Other manufacturers provide discounts or even has a point system for every order that can eventually be converted to a discount for the next order.

Manufacturers make sure that they place the chemicals in a durable container to avoid leakage during shipping. Those chemicals are available in different amounts depending on the product packaging. Some items are packaged from 100mg to 1kg. They may be bought for wholesale and retail quantities.

When buying research chemicals for sale online, there are different modes of payment that are used. Some websites allow the use of PayPal when making a payment, while some companies opt the customers to use credit or debit cards.

In terms of shipping, rates and policies vary, depending on the place or country where the products are to be delivered. Some companies provide next day deliveries if the client is in or near the same area. For international deliveries, they provide registered mail or another courier instead.

Products to be sent via mail are placed in sealed containers, special sachets and they are properly labeled. Other companies even have the items sealed in a zip locked bag for better storage.

Those are some of the important things that need to be kept in mind when ordering research chemicals for sale online. It is the researcher’s duty to make sure that he gets the chemicals that he needs to complete his projects. Whether you buy online or go directly to the supplier, make sure that the supplier you have chosen will provide you the quality chemicals at the best price available.